An overview of the practice of female genital mutilation

And in some cultures, if a woman is raped, she may be forced to marry her attacker or sometimes she is killed to protect the family honor. Some women who live in cultures that require genital mutilation have resisted mutilation, while others have accepted it as a cultural norm.

Word Health Organization; While legal safeguards are an important step towards ending FGM, they are not enough to eliminate it. Where it is believed that being cut increases marriageability, FGM is more likely to be carried out.

Female genital mutilation: an overview

It is imperative that nurses know the signs to look out for when a child might be at risk of, or may have had, FGM. The article examines the tensions of the West and countries that practice female genital mutilation, noting that many believe the West does not understand the culture behind this practice.

Most countries have enacted legislation to criminalize the procedure. Adverse consequences of FGM are shock from pain and hemorrhage,[ 10 ] infection, acute urinary retention following such trauma, damage to the urethra or anus in the struggle of the victim during the procedure making the extent of the operation dictated in many cases by chance,[ 6 ] chronic pelvic infection, acquired gynatresia resulting in hematocolpos, vulval adhesions, dysmenorrhea, retention cysts, and sexual difficulties with anorgasmia.

The justifications for female genital mutilation are set out, with an observation by the author that most of these justifications have to do with keeping women in a submissive state.

A study of little — known custom. In half the countries for which national figures were available in —, most girls had been cut by age five. Was any flesh or something removed from the genital area?

Female genital mutilation: an overview

Prolonged labor, delayed 2nd stage and obstructed labor leading to fistulae formation, and increased perinatal morbidity and mortality have been associated with FGM. Though FGM is practiced in more than 28 countries in Africa and a few scattered communities worldwide, its burden is seen in Nigeria, Egypt, Mali, Eritrea, Sudan, Central African Republic, and northern part of Ghana where it has been an old traditional and cultural practice of various ethnic groups.

An overview of female genital mutilation in Nigeria. However, "[t]he WHO estimates that 85 to million girls and women worldwide have been subjected to some form of genital excision.

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change

The author examines these difficulties in the context of American society, where body piercing, tattooing, and cosmetic surgery all are allowed. The current standard is called the Enhanced Dataset and since 1 October applies to acute trusts, GP surgeries and mental health trusts in England and Wales.

It is crucial that we scale up efforts to change traditional cultural views that underpin violence against women. Other reasons are to prevent mother and child from dying during childbirth and for legal reasons one cannot inherit property if not circumcised.

Complete obstruction of the vagina can result in hematocolpos and hematometra where the vagina and uterus fill with menstrual blood. Ann Med Health Sci Res ;2: Instead, women and their spouse should be encouraged to attend counseling about its harmful effects to prevent them from going to a lay practitioner.

Additional Information Abstract Female genital mutilation FGMwhich is any form of non-therapeutic intervention leading to the ablation or alteration of the female genital organs, has adverse health consequences. It involves the removal of the prepuce or the hood of the clitoris and all or part of the clitoris.

Female genital mutilation

This article examines the "nature, extent and consequences of [female genital mutilation]. It aims to ensure premarital virginity and marital fidelity. In the case of Type III, other factors include how small a hole was left for the passage of urine and menstrual blood, whether surgical thread was used instead of agave or acacia thorns, and whether the procedure was performed more than once for example, to close an opening regarded as too wide or re-open one too small.

In those settings all types of FGM were found to pose an increased risk of death to the baby:"Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for.

FGM/C is now the preferred acronym used by UNICEF to refer to "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting." They report that: 1 "FGM/C is concentrated in a swath of countries from the Atlantic Coast to the Horn of Africa, with wide variations in the percentage of girls and women cut, both within and across countries.

'Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.' 1 It involves removing and damaging healthy female genital tissue, and hence interferes with the natural function of girls' and women's bodies.

May 06,  · Jaha Dukureh, a survivor of female genital mutilation in her native Gambia, campaigns to end the practice in the U.S. Here she speaks at a news conference in the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.

The practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths.

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.

The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common.

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An overview of the practice of female genital mutilation
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